Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries 3-1 (November 2011)Wietske Prummel; Hülya Halici; Annemieke Verbaas: The bone and antler tools from the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp 1
Report on the manufacture and wear trace analysis of ten bone and antler artefacts from the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp.


None of the objects is shaped in a rather rough, ad hoc manner. Almost all objects seem to be shaped by scraping and/or cutting. This can, amongst other features, be seen at places where the scraper or knife dived too deep into the surface, leaving shallow hack marks. An exception is find number 5528 which seems to have been finished by polishing. It is likely that some of the needles were polished after the initial shaping phase by scraping and/or cutting, but no traces of this were visible. Most of the needles still display some part of the original outer surface of the bone. These needles were made out of a thin bone, i.e. a pig fibula and only part of the sides and the front and the back end were modified (find numbers 1, 153, 1001 and 1024). In these cases the spongeosum is visible inside the needles on the fractured surfaces. The perforations can be straight or hourglass shaped. Find numbers 5528 and 1001 have an oblong shaped perforation. On find number 5528 there are two perforations drilled close to each other.