Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries 4-2 (April 2013)Annet Nieuwhof: Anglo-Saxon immigration or continuity? Ezinge and the coastal area of the northern Netherlands in the Migration Period.


1. Terp (pl. terpen) is the Frisian word for the artificial dwelling mounds of the northern Netherlands; it is the term most often used in international publications and will be used here (with English plural terps) for the wierden of the province of Groningen and the Wurten of the coast of Niedersachsen as well.

2. Publication of the results of the Odyssee-project De grondsporen van Ezinge in the Jaarverslagen van de Vereniging voor Terpenonderzoek is due in 2013.

3. Ezinge was not part of Taayke’s sample area of central-Groningen; his argument was based on some Ezinge pots published by Van Es as part of his study on the pottery from Wijster (Van Es 1967).

4. In Ezinge, which might be considered exemplary, only ca 1% of the total pottery assemblage consists of wheel-thrown pottery, dated to the entire period from the Roman Iron Age until the late Middle Ages.

5. A PhD-thesis on Anglo-Saxon pottery, which will deal with the origin of this pottery and its decoration, is being prepared by Tessa Krol (University of Groningen).

6. K in the typology of Taayke represents small pots; G represents large pots.

7. The same types can have different codes in the four different sampling areas of Taayke’s study of 1996. In this paper, types from northern-Drenthe are preceded by Dr., types from central-Groningen by Gr.

8. Lanting & Van der Plicht (2010, 142ff) do not recognize pottery in late-Saxon style. However, their dates of cremations from pots with late characteristics are among the youngest of their series of dated ‘Saxon’ pottery: Ferwerd-Burmania II, 101 bis-1941; Wageningen e 1928/3.8; Monster, Peeters VIII; Monster, h 1956/7.9; Rijnsburg h 1921/10.1. A pot with a late appearance (vertical Buckel and stamp decoration) from Oosterbeintum, no. 521, is probably dated too young: 1430 ± 30 (Lanting & Van der Plicht 2012, 288-289, fig. 1.3).

9. Hessens-Schortens ware is the accepted term in the Netherlands. In Germany it is nowadays called weiche Grauware. This term is difficult to translate.

10. An early medieval maple mazer was found in nearby Englum (Bottema-McGillavry 2008, 181-182).

11. Pottery numbers in Ezinge are a combination of the excavation find number and a pottery identity number from the pottery research. If find numbers are unknown, only id.-numbers are given.

12. 25 sherds of ARS were among the terra sigillata and related Roman imported pottery.

13. Numbers presented here slightly differ from the numbers mentioned in the original publication (Nieuwhof 2008a) because of a revision of some of the determinations and a more explicit choice of rims herds and a selection of wall sherds.

14. The number of Trichterpokale for the Feddersen Wierde does not include K4b-beakers, since their number is not mentioned separately by Schmid, although he does show some of these beakers in Taf. 47. The percentage of K4-beakers from the Feddersen Wierde will therefore be somewhat higher.

15. Excavations 2008-2010. Personal communication E. Schrijer, Bureau De Steekproef.

16. Excavations in 1981 by the Fries Museum under the direction of E. Kramer and by the University of Groningen in 2010, directed by dr. J.A.W. Nicolay.

17. Taayke 1996, IV, 140; personal communication dr. J.A.W. Nicolay, T. Varwijk and M. Bakker (University of Groningen).

18. For instance the so-called Steilkantenproject, directed by dr. J.A.W. Nicolay (University of Groningen). Personal communication T. Varwijk and M. Bakker (University of Groningen).

19. The cap ridge of Westergo was described and mapped by Vos (1999, fig. 23). It is found along the entire coast, due to the continuous relative sea level rise.