Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries 4-1 (October 2012)Willy Groenman-van Waateringe: Celtic field banks and Early Medieval rye cultivation


1. See for more details and references Brongers 1976, 18-29.

2. In figs 2,3,4 Secale pollen and Cerealia in general have been taken together. The rather poor preservation of the pollen hampers the certain identification specifically of cereal pollen, because most of them are heavily crumpled. High values in arable fields point to the wind-pollinated Secale.

3. The higher values for Pinus (pine) and the presence of Centaurea cyanus and Fagopyrum (buckwheat) in some of the top samples point to pollen from Late Medieval and even younger periods.