Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries 3-1 (November 2011)Wietske Prummel; Hülya Halici; Annemieke Verbaas: The bone and antler tools from the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp 1
6 The bone tools used in the five occupation phases

6.6 Diachronous development of bone and antler tools at Wijnaldum-Tjitsma

Fig. 34 shows the development in time of the bone and antler tools used at the terp. Fibre and skin working tools are not very numerous in the Roman period. They increase in the Migration period and are very numerous in the Merovingian period. This suggests intensified fibre and skin working in the Migration and later periods, especially in the Merovingian period. Personal utensils, mainly combs, were introduced at the terp in the Migration period. Their numbers stayed quite constant during the Merovingian, Carolingian and Ottonian periods.


Figure 34 Representation of the groups of bone and antler tools at Wijnaldum-Tjitsma in the five periods.

Amulets were very popular during the Roman period, after which there is a decline. Musical instruments made of bone or antler were only used during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods. This may be related to elite inhabitants at the terp during these periods. Household utensils, including the unique sieve, were rather numerous during the Roman period and may be indicative of high status. Some remarkable tools, such as a box, spoons and handles, are among the household utensils from the Merovingian and Carolingian periods and may also be related to elite inhabitants. Skates, skate point tips and a sledge runner were only found in the Migration and later periods. These tools were obviously introduced during the Migration period. They are especially well represented in the Ottonian period.