Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries 3-1 (November 2011)Wietske Prummel; Hülya Halici; Annemieke Verbaas: The bone and antler tools from the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp 1
Report on the manufacture and wear trace analysis of ten bone and antler artefacts from the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp.


Five of the needles were used on plant fibres (find numbers 1, 1001, 1024, 1065 and 5528). Unfortunately it is not possible to specify the plant species involved. Experimental research has so far not shown enough variability in the polish resulting from contact with different kinds of plants to allow precise identification. These needles might, especially if you take their shape and size into consideration, have been used for the making and repairing of nets or to manufacture containers of different plant fibres. The traces present on the other two needles (find numbers 153 and 2650) display features that can be attributed to contact with different materials, suggesting that they were indeed used on different materials.

Of the two pins one displays traces of wool (find number 5972). It was probably used as a fibula on a woollen mantle or cloak. The other pin shows traces of probable contact with hair and was probably used as a hairpin (find number 3453). The last object, of unknown type, has probably been used to work skin or leather (find number 3869). The entire surface of the object shows the same wear and even the reverse is rounded, indicating the object was pulled through leather in its entirety.