Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries 1-1 (May 2009)Stijn Heeren: New views on the forfex of Virilis the veterinarian: shears, emasculator or twitch?


1. Although some sort of horseshoe existed (the so called hipposandal), it is not likely that horses were shod in the modern sense, that is, using nails. Hipposandals were probably used for treating injured animals or as decorative elements (Dixon & Southern 1992, 229-233). Most likely hoofs were taken care of by trimming (Hyland 1990, 123-125).

2. Stijn Heeren, Archaeological Centre of VU University, Amsterdam,